N° 799 dated 14/12/2022 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed by a constitutive treaty (December 22, 1922), on December 30, 1922 the 1st Soviet of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Transcaucasia ( Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) "agree to form a single Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" , it was formed on the basis of equality and free membership of the peoples.
Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan will join the Union in 1925, Tajikistan in 1929 and after the Second World War the USSR will be made up of 15 republics.
With the formation of the USSR, the States of the world were divided into two camps: on the one hand that of capitalism which develops by exploiting always more, imposes its domination always narrower on the whole of the activity human. Capitalism in its search for maximum profit is wreaking havoc in the world, declaring wars to impose its domination, for which the peoples are paying the price. On the other , socialismit is the transformation of capitalist private ownership of the means of production into social ownership, the distribution of land to the peasants, the freedom and equality of nationalities, the peaceful coexistence and fraternal collaboration of peoples.
The formation of the USSR was crucial for Russia, for the Soviet republics, for the world
It was in a bloodless Russia, after 4 years of war against the white Russians, the big landowners, the supporters of the tsar, all armed by the great capitalist powers, the foreign powers (Japan, France, United Kingdom, etc.), in the face of foreign intervention in which France took part in which the Soviet Union was founded.
In a short time, the development of the Soviet Union is dazzling.
⁕ A massive literacy campaign is launched to eradicate illiteracy. In 22 years between 1917 and 1939, the USSR accomplished what it took Great Britain, France, Germany at least 100 years. In 1897 only 21% of adults could read, "in 1939 at the end of the literacy campaign, the rate for the Soviet population was 87.4% for both sexes, (93.5% for men and 81 .6 % for women) (1) ”
⁕ In 1938, the overall volume of industrial production in the USSR placed it ahead of all European countries. She was second in the world.
⁕ In 1940, the USSR had multiplied by 4 the production of cast iron and steel, by 5.5 the production of coal, by 3.5 the production of oil, by 2.7 the production of raw cotton.
On the eve of the Second World War, the USSR had reached a technical and production level that rivaled most Western countries.
In 1936 the USSR was the only one to support the Spanish Republic attacked by the fascists. The resistance of the Soviet Union to the Nazi occupier had a decisive role in the outcome of the Second World War. The heroism of the peoples of the Union, the organizational capacities and the technical level reached made it possible to crush Nazism at the cost of immense sacrifices.
The USSR was a factor that weighed in the direction of peace and allowed many peoples to free themselves from colonialism and overcome imperialist aggressions, as was the case in Vietnam, it gave decisive support to socialist Cuba that she helped economically, supported the ANC in the fight against apartheid in South Africa
The existence of the USSR and the socialist countries profoundly marked the course of development of the capitalist countries themselves, they enabled the peoples of the world to achieve important social conquests. The ideological and social pressure on the big capitalist countries compelled the leaders of the capitalist countries to take their existence into account. They had to concede social reforms under the pressure of national and international balance of power favorable to the workers. The development of communist parties based on the October Revolution provides the political means to conquer new rights the conquest of social measures: collective agreements on wages and working conditions, job security, pension plans , etc. were won through struggles and forced capital to retreat.
The intensity of the class struggle of the world capitalist forces against the USSR since 1917, the economic, military, political struggle (after 1945, the creation of capitalist Europe, the Atlantic Pact, NATO, the atomic weapon ) was one of the decisive factors in the disappearance of the USSR, which was forced to devote most of its means to confronting the capitalists who dominated the world. This merciless class struggle waged by world capitalism against the USSR and the socialist countries ultimately led to their demise.
1990 was a terrible blow against the revolutionary current. The disappearance of the socialist countries has modified the relationship of forces. The former Soviet Republics are led by puppets under the orders of imperialism, many revolutionary parties have converted into social democratic parties. But the more the world advances, the more capitalism shows its harmfulness for humanity, capitalism and the armed conflicts that it organizes cause millions of victims. All, without exception, are carried out to establish the domination of capitalism, to control the sources of supply and the world markets, the war in Ukraine being an example of this. To impose its domination by force, imperialism plunders entire countries, unleashes wars, tramples on the independence of nations and peoples.
There are more and more national and international struggles for social and political conquests, against the degradation of the increasingly unlivable living conditions imposed on the people by the capitalist system. Capitalism is incapable of solving the problems of humanity, on the contrary, it continues to aggravate them. The peoples seek the ways of their emancipation. The Soviet revolution represents an essential contribution in the history of this 20 thcentury. It constitutes a fundamental experience and a hope for peoples. The Soviet Revolution proved that capitalism is not invincible, that it is not the only possible system. If the USSR was beaten by imperialism, it was only a moment in the class struggle on a national and international scale: "The counter-revolutions are parentheses of history, the future belongs to the revolutionaries” (2) .
1 UNESCO Report, HS Bhola, Literacy Campaign, Paris, 1986
2 GM Dimitrov, Secretary General of the Executive Committee of the Third International